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Petrographic analysis of raw materials from Lespezi-Lutărie 59 Al. In the absence of Upper Cretaceous flint compozion eco subțire in this area, the archaeologist explained the presence of this material in UP sites from Bistriţa Valley as imports of Prut Valley flint type Nicolăescu-Plopşor et aliip. The idea of raw material imports from Lower Danube Valley is also supported by the fact that in the Giurgiu-Malu Roşu site two endscrapers made of black shale are mentioned Păunescu, Alexandrescup.
These facts reflect some kind of reciprocal relations between UP human communities from Lower Danube and Middle and Lower Bistriţa valleys.
Besides this specific problem of long-distance imported Upper Cretaceous nodular cherts, the present study gives a more nuanced picture for the petrographic variability of the local raw materials from Lespezi and, through the consistency of previous descriptions, of all sites from the Middle and Lower Bistriţa Valley. Because of their compozion eco subțire provenance not so spectacular in compozion eco subțire of transport distance and quite annoying because of their variability, abundance and availability raw materials from Eastern Carpathian Flysch have been compozion eco subțire discussed by archaeologists see above, section 1 and rather disregarded by previous petroarchaeological works Crandell et alii In all sites from this region, the menilite is depicted as one of the most abundant rock types of the lithic assemblages see Table 7.
But as proven by this analysis, it actually includes different petrographic types of cherts with similar macroscopic features. The menilite and the gray-brownish Eocene chert certainly have a local origin, but their share in the lithic material was obstructed by their amalgamation and confusion with each other and the macroscopically similar grayish chert variety [ 04a]of unknown and remote provenance. The black schist category includes some different types of shales which have a very wide area of occurrence see above, section 4.
The sandstone category contains different petrographic types of coarse-grained rocks calcarenite, quartzarenite, detrital-rich spiculite chertwhich also have a large and geologically diversified distribution in the area.
External compozion eco subțire of the samples analyzed confirmed that raw materials were collected from alluvial deposits sub-autochthonous or allochthonous sources, sensu Turqp.
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This petrographic diversity, mistaken with petrographic heterogeneity Crandell et aliip. Faced with this petrographic diversity and abundance in a given landscape one may raise the question of exactly how local a raw material is?
Returning to the geological landscape of Lespezi-Lutărie site, occurrence of Paleogene rocks can be placed immediately westward from the site Vrancea Nappewhile Lower Cretaceous rocks can be found compozion eco subțire to the north-west in Piatra Neamţ area Vrancea Nappe see Table 1 and Pl. Given this geological framework, it can be assumed that raw compozion eco subțire supply for Lespezi site was done mainly from alluvial sources in a radius of 50 km but other and more restricted definitions of compozion eco subțire, in terms compozion eco subțire distance and petrographic characteristics, may and should be employed.
These patterns of raw material acquisition shift in frequencies of the most used types from one level to another inside the same site or between neighboring sites suggest that preference was probably controlled also by source accessibility both in time and in space and raw material abundance within that source, but also the particular function of the site.
The massive use of Cretaceous flint and menilite, sometimes of black schist in equal amounts also, and the diminished exploitation of sandstones was interpreted as an evolutionary step forward — these are fine-grained materials of good or better knappable quality compozion eco subțire fracture initiation, fracture predictability.
This was the position taken by archaeologist from C. Nicolăescu-Plopşor till the present day, though within this interval of time the advances in experimental knapping and knowledge of rock properties allow another angle of interpretation, i.
Another overlooked fact is that prehistoric raw material acquisition strategy might have followed rock properties other than fracture predictability, such as edge durability which is associated with coarse-grained materials Braun et aliip. The silicification degree Fig. As a consequence, the preference and use of variable rock types with different grain dimensions at Lespezi-Lutărie and other sites should not be merely described in terms of good versus bad quality knappable raw-materials.
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Conclusions The present petrographic analysis of the raw materials from Lespezi-Lutărie level IV established 16 varieties pertaining to different rock types: sandstones varieties [ 01b], [ 01c] and [ 01d]black shale varieties [ 02b] and [ 02c]bedded cherts varieties [ 01a] and [ 03]grayish-brownish Eocene chert variety [ 04b]peloidal cherts variety [ 02a] and Upper Cretaceous nodular cherts varieties [ 04a], [ 05a]-[ 05d].
This analysis is not complete because some other observed raw materials were determined only as macroscopic varieties and further investigations are necessary. Petrographic analysis of raw materials from Lespezi-Lutărie 61 Part of the varieties identified in level IV of Lespezi-Lutărie site compozion eco subțire the availability, abundance, accessibility and variability of raw materials in the surrounding area Tarcău and Vrancea nappeswhile the ones transported from other regions represent imported materials related to cultural relations and geographically opened circulation routes among the Gravettian communities from Bistriţa, Prut and Danube valleys.
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The use of both coarser sandstones and fine-grained lithologies shale, chertsfrom poorly silicified sandstones, shale to strongly and very strongly silicified nodular cherts from chalk reflects acquisition patterns guided by specific needs and uses of tools.
External macroscopic features indicate secondary sources alluvial deposits, riverbeds for all varieties determined in this study. Although some of the raw materials might have the same source an alluvial depositthe same geological age namely pertaining to deposits of the same geological period or stageor their primary deposits may be situated close in space, they should not be described and regarded as a single raw material type.
They can only be considered as such only from the supply distance point of view, while frequency abundance inside the lithic assemblage might have different meanings and interpretations. In spite of an early and good start regarding raw materials characterization and provenance, previous archaeological research has compozion eco subțire so much focused on typology and technology, and tangled up in chronology and stratigraphy problems, that eventually has left out and almost completely neglected acquisition and exploitation of rocks and all that might result from such an analysis.
I want to thank to Mrs. Roxana Dobrescu who enabled access to samples and for editing different versions of the manuscript. I would also like to thank Mr. Alain Tuffreau for funding thin sections preparation and field surveys for raw materials in I am deeply compozion eco subțire to Barbara Soare Department of Mineralogy, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, University of Bucharest for permission to use the petrographic microscope for the present analysis.
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References Amadori et alii — M. Amadori, H. Belayouni, F. Guerrera, M. Martin-Martin, I. Martin-Rojas, C. Miclăuş, G.